Over the course of the 2010 monsoon season, Pakistan experienced the worst floods in its history.
Heavy rainfall, flash floods and riverine floods combined to create a moving body of water equal in dimension to the land mass of the United Kingdom. The floods have affected 84 districts out of a total of 121 districts in Pakistan, and more than 20 million people – one-tenth of Pakistan’s population – devastating villages from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea. More than 1,700 men, women and children have lost their lives, and at least 1.8 million homes have been damaged or destroyed. As of the publication of this revision, seven weeks since heavy rainfall and flash floods claimed their first victims, flood waves continue to devastate the southern province of Sindh, where the full extent of losses and damages may not be known for several more weeks. Since the launch of the Pakistan Initial Floods Emergency Response Plan (PIFERP) on August 11, the humanitarian community has received $412 million for this strategic plan to meet the immediate relief needs of flood-affected communities.
Approximately 35% of these funds have already been spent or committed by the humanitarian organizations that received them, and funding requirements have now been revised on the basis of fresh needs assessments, continuously rising beneficiary figures, and an extended planning and budgeting horizon. This revised Response Plan seeks a further $1.6 billion1 to enable international partners (UN organizations and NGOs) to support the Government of Pakistan in addressing the residual relief needs and early recovery needs of flood-affected families for the next twelve months.
A mid-term revision will be carried out in the first quarter of 2011 to provide more refined data and analysis on early recovery needs. The overarching goal of this plan is to prevent excess morbidity and mortality and to enable flood affected communities to return to their normal lives.
The consequent strategic objectives are:
1. Ensure adequate public health of the flood affected population through an integrated approach or “survival strategy” combining Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), health and nutrition. Public health surveillance will identify priority areas for the restoration of basic WASH, health and nutrition facilities and services.
2. Provide food assistance and other social protection measures to offer a basic safety net, especially to the most vulnerable, until people’s livelihoods are restored.
3. Support durable solutions through the provision of shelter assistance (material and cash as appropriate), prioritizing shelter solutions that can span emergency shelter, transitional shelter and core housing needs.
4. Restore on and off-farm livelihoods, with a focus on agriculture, livestock, and protection and restoration of productive assets.
5. Restore basic community services and supporting the re-establishment of public administration, health, and education systems.
Working in support of the Government of Pakistan and its National Disaster Management Authority
(NDMA) and other stakeholders, the humanitarian community in Pakistan continues to make all efforts to reach as many of the affected men, women, boys and girls as possible. It is recognized, however, that the sheer scale of the disaster and the unprecedented number of vulnerable people exceeds the capacity of any single stakeholder. The geographical scale of this disaster and the number of affected people makes this a bigger and more complex situation than almost any other ever faced by the humanitarian community. However, the system is scaling up: for example there are now 76 operational organizations in the WASH Cluster, compared to 27 at the start of the floods.
With resources stretched even more thinly than usual by the sheer magnitude of the disaster, humanitarian organizations have a clear responsibility to ensure an effective, needs-based response.
Strategies therefore draw directly on the evidence and analysis gathered through the completed needs assessments, including the initial Vulnerability Assessment2, the Multi-Cluster Rapid Assessment
Mechanism (MCRAM) 3, and government baseline data on all affected districts and communities.
The impact and results of the humanitarian community’s contribution will be measured against a set of agreed key performance indicators at the strategic, cluster and project levels. Monitoring and reporting against these indicators will be based on the roll-out of a recently developed “Single Reporting Format.” This tool, successfully piloted in two of the affected provinces, will allow partners to demonstrate their progress against the strategies presented in this document via a monthly online reporting format.
Humanitarian actors will seek to closely coordinate their activities with other partners, including civil and military authorities, civil society, and the private sector to ensure that assistance reaches as many affected people as possible. Humanitarian assistance will be guided by the principle of impartiality and non-discrimination, regardless of status as nationals or refugees and will focus especially on the most vulnerable, which include (but are not limited to) ethnic or religious minorities, socially marginalized groups, women, children, landless, non-ID-card holders, Afghan refugees, older people, and people with disabilities, chronic diseases and serious medical conditions.
Different sets of strategic key performance indicators have been developed for relief and early recovery, which will allow the impact of relief projects and early recovery projects to be measured separately. Where baselines do not exist, the number of people who have been confirmed as affected will serve as a baseline for project-specific performance. Activities of clusters will be developed against key performance indicators that clearly outline the proportion of the baseline that will be targeted. A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation framework has been developed to report against indicators and objectives.
Although the resources required to meet all the humanitarian needs caused by the floods could be reckoned as higher than $2 billion, the Humanitarian Country Team has confined itself to this figure for this publication to be sure that its member organizations can fully use the requested resources. As organizations continue to deploy capacity and more information about needs emerges, the sum of requested resources is likely to move accordingly.
This revised plan is the product of the Humanitarian Country Team and reflects its collective estimate of the situation and best possible response. Consultations with the Government of Pakistan are ongoing. This plan should be considered a “living document” whose elements will continue to evolve as consultations continue, new information emerges, and additional capacity deploys.